Multiple Sclerosis Summary

History Multiple sclerosis (MS) was first recognized in the late 1800s, but did not begin to be understood until the 1960s. The late 1960s was the time researchers began to correlate the inflammation process with the breakdown of the myelin sheath (a protective...

Non-hodgkin lymphoma Pathophysiology

Cellular Classification of Adult NHL A pathologist should be consulted before a biopsy because some studies require special preparation of tissue (e.g., frozen tissue). Knowledge of cell surface markers and immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements may...

Non-hodgkin lymphoma Treatment

Treatment Option Overview for Adult NHL Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) depends on the histologic type and stage. Many of the improvements in survival have been made using clinical trials (experimental therapy) that have attempted to improve on the best...

Pancreatitis NIDDK

Definition & Facts What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach, close to the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. The pancreas has two main functions—to make insulin and to...

How is appendicitis treated?

Appendicitis is typically treated with surgery to remove the appendix. The surgery is performed in a hospital; general anesthesia is needed. If appendicitis is suspected, especially in patients who have persistent abdominal pain and fever, or signs of a burst appendix...